What are the primitive types in TypeScript?

TypeScript has three primitive types that are frequently used: string, number, and boolean. These correspond to the similarly named types in JavaScript.

  1. string: represents text values such as “javascript”, “typescript”, etc.
  2. number: represents numeric values like 1, 2, 32, 43, etc.
  3. boolean: represents a variable that can have either a ‘true’ or ‘false’ value.

Explain how the arrays work in TypeScript.

We use arrays to store values of the same type. Arrays are ordered and indexed collections of values. The indexing starts at 0, i.e., the first element has index 0, the second has index 1, and so on.

Here is the syntax to declare and initialize an array in TypeScript.

let values: number[] = [];
values[0] = 10;
values[1] = 20;
values[2] = 30;

You can also create an array using the short-hand syntax as follows:

let values: number[] = [15, 20, 25, 30];

TypeScript provides an alternate syntax to specify the Array type.

let values: Array<number> = [15, 20, 25, 30];


What is any type, and when to use it?

There are times when you want to store a value in a variable but don’t know the type of that variable in advance. For example, the value is coming from an API call or the user input. The ‘any’ type allows you to assign a value of any type to the variable of type any.

let person: any = "Foo";

Here is an example that demonstrates the usage of any type.

// json may come from a third-party API
const employeeData: string = `{"name": "John Doe", "salary": 60000}`;

// parse JSON to build employee object
const employee: any = JSON.parse(employeeData);

TypeScript assumes a variable is of type any when you don’t explicitly provide the type, and the compiler cannot infer the type from the surrounding context. 

TypeScript assumes a variable is of type any when you don’t explicitly provide the type, and the compiler cannot infer the type from the surrounding context.


What is void, and when to use the void type?

The void indicates the absence of type on a variable. It acts as the opposite type to any. It is especially useful in functions that don’t return a value.

function notify(): void {
  alert("The user has been notified.");

If a variable is of type void, you can only assign the null or undefined values to that variable.


What is an unknown type, and when to use it in TypeScript?

The unknown type is the type-safe counterpart of any type. You can assign anything to the unknown, but the unknown isn’t assignable to anything but itself and any, without performing a type assertion of a control-flow-based narrowing. You cannot perform any operations on a variable of an unknown type without first asserting or narrowing it to a more specific type.

Consider the following example. We create the foo variable of unknown type and assign a string value to it. If we try to assign that unknown variable to a string variable bar, the compiler gives an error.

let foo: unknown = "Akshay";
let bar: string = foo; // Type 'unknown' is not assignable to type 'string'.(2322)

You can narrow down a variable of an unknown type to something specific by doing typeof checks or comparison checks or using type guards. For example, we can get rid of the above error by

let foo: unknown = "Akshay";
let bar: string = foo as string;


What are the different keywords to declare variables in TypeScript?

var: Declares a function-scoped or global variable. You can optionally set its value during the declaration. Its behavior and scoping rules are similar to the var keyword in JavaScript. For example,

var foo = "bar";

let: Declares a block-scoped local variable. Similar to var, you can optionally set the value of a variable during the declaration. For example,

let a = 5;

if (true) {
  let a = 10;
  console.log(a);  // 10
console.log(a);  // 5

const: Declares a block-scoped constant value that cannot be changed after it’s initialized. For example,

const a = 5;

if (true) {
  a = 10; // Error: Cannot assign to 'a' because it is a constant.(2588)


Provide the syntax of a function with the type annotations.

Functions are blocks of code to perform a specific code. Functions can optionally take one or more arguments, process them, and optionally return a value.

Here’s the TypeScript syntax to create and call a function.

function greet(name: string): string {
  return `Hello, ${name}`;

let greeting = greet("Anders");
console.log(greeting);  // "Hello, Anders"


How to create objects in TypeScript?

Objects are dictionary-like collections of keys and values. The keys have to be unique. They are similar to arrays and are also sometimes called associative arrays. However, an array uses numbers to index the values, whereas an object allows you to use any other type as the key.

In TypeScript, an Object type refers to any value with properties. It can be defined by simply listing the properties and their types. For example,

let pt: { x: number; y: number } = {
  x: 10,
  y: 20


How to specify optional properties in TypeScript?

An object type can have zero or more optional properties by adding a ‘?’ after the property name.

let pt: { x: number; y: number; z?: number } = {
  x: 10,
  y: 20

In the example above, because the property ‘z’ is marked as optional, the compiler won’t complain if we don’t provide it during the initialization.


Explain the concept of null and its use in TypeScript.

In programming, a null value indicates an absence of value. A null variable doesn’t point to any object. Hence you cannot access any properties on the variable or call a method on it.

In TypeScript, the null value is indicated by the ‘null’ keyword. You can check if a value is null as follows:

function greet(name: string | null) {
if (name === null) {
  console.log("Name is not provided");
} else {
  console.log("Good morning, " + name.toUpperCase());

var foo = null;
greet(foo); // "Name is not provided"

foo = "Anders";
greet(foo);  // "Good morning, ANDERS"


What is undefined in TypeScript?

When a variable is declared without initialization, it’s assigned the undefined value. It’s not very useful on its own. A variable is undefined if it’s declared, but no value has been assigned to it. In contrast, null is assigned to a variable, and it represents no value

console.log(null == null); // true
console.log(undefined == undefined); // true
console.log(null == undefined); // true, with type-conversion
console.log(null === undefined); // false, without type-conversion
console.log(0 == undefined); // false
console.log('' == undefined); // false
console.log(false == undefined); // false


Explain the purpose of the never type in TypeScript.

As the name suggests, the never type represents the type of values that never occur. For example, a function that never returns a value or that always throws an exception can mark its return type as never.

function error(message: string): never {
  throw new Error(message);

You might wonder why we need a ‘never’ type when we already have ‘void’. Though both types look similar, they represent two very different concepts.

A function that doesn't return a value implicitly returns the value undefined in JavaScript. Hence, even though we are saying it’s not returning anything, it’s returning ‘undefined’. We usually ignore the return value in these cases. Such a function is inferred to have a void return type in TypeScript.

// This function returns undefined
function greet(name: string) {
console.log(`Hello, ${name}`);

let greeting = greet("David");
console.log(greeting);  // undefined

In contrast, a function that has a never return type never returns. It doesn't return undefined, either. There are 2 cases where functions should return never type:

  1. In an unending loop e.g a while(true){} type loop.
  2. A function that throws an error e.g function foo(){throw new Exception('Error message')}



Explain how enums work in TypeScript?

Enums allow us to create named constants. It is a simple way to give more friendly names to numeric constant values. An enum is defined by the keyword enum, followed by its name and the members.

Consider the following example that defines an enum Team with four values in it.

enum Team {
let t: Team = Team.Delta;

By default, the enums start the numbering at 0. You can override the default numbering by explicitly assigning the values to its members.

TypeScript also lets you create enums with string values as follows:

enum Author {
  Anders = "Anders",
  Hejlsberg = "Hejlsberg"


What is the typeof operator? How is it used in TypeScript?

Similar to JavaScript, the typeof operator in TypeScript returns the type of the operand as a string.

console.log(typeof 10);  // "number"

console.log(typeof 'foo');  // "string"

console.log(typeof false);  // "boolean"

console.log(typeof bar);  // "undefined"

In TypeScript, you can use the typeof operator in a type context to refer to the type of a property or a variable.

let greeting = "hello";
let typeOfGreeting: typeof greeting;  // similar to let typeOfGreeting: string


What are the rest parameters and arguments in TypeScript?

A rest parameter allows a function to accept an indefinite number of arguments as an array. It is denoted by the ‘…’ syntax and indicates that the function can accept one or more arguments.

function add(...values: number[]) {
let sum = 0;
values.forEach(val => sum += val);
return sum;
const sum = add(5, 10, 15, 20);
console.log(sum);  // 50

In contrast, the rest arguments allow a function caller to provide a variable number of arguments from an array. Consider the following example.


const first = [1, 2, 3];
const second = [4, 5, 6];

console.log(first);  // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] 


What is parameter destructuring?

Parameter destructing allows a function to unpack the object provided as an argument into one or more local variables.

function multiply({ a, b, c }: { a: number; b: number; c: number }) {
console.log(a * b * c);

multiply({ a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 });

You can simplify the above code by using an interface or a named type, as follows:
type ABC = { a: number; b: number; c: number };

function multiply({ a, b, c }: ABC) {
console.log(a * b * c);

multiply({ a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 });


Explain the TypeScript class syntax.

TypeScript fully supports classes. The TypeScript syntax for class declaration is similar to that of JavaScript, with the added type support for the member declarations.

Here is a simple class that defines an Employee type

class Employee {
  name: string;
  salary: number;

  constructor(name: string, salary: number) {
          this.name = name;
          this.salary = salary;
  promote() : void {
    this.salary += 10000;

You can create an instance (or object) of a class by using the new keyword.

// Create a new employee
let john = new Employee("John", 60000);

console.log(john.salary);  // 60000
console.log(john.salary);  // 70000


Explain the arrow function syntax in TypeScript.

Arrow functions provide a short and convenient syntax to declare functions. They are also called lambdas in other programming languages.

Consider a regular function that adds two numbers and returns a number.

function add(x: number, y: number): number {
let sum = x + y;
return sum;

Using arrow functions syntax, the same function can be defined as:

let add = (x: number, y: number): number => {
let sum = x + y;
return sum;

You can further simplify the syntax by getting rid of the brackets and the return statement. This is allowed when the function body consists of only one statement. For example, if we remove the temporary sum variable, we can rewrite the above function as:

let add = (x: number, y: number): number => x + y; 

Arrow functions are often used to create anonymous callback functions in TypeScript. Consider the example below that loops over and filters an array of numbers and returns an array containing multiples of five. The filter function takes an arrow function.

let numbers = [3, 5, 9, 15, 34, 35];

let fiveMultiples = numbers.filter(num => (num % 5) == 0);

console.log(fiveMultiples);  // [5, 15, 35]


Provide the syntax for optional parameters in TypeScript.

A function can mark one or more of its parameters as optional by suffixing its name with ‘?’. In the example below, the parameter greeting is marked optional.

function greet(name: string, greeting?: string) {
if (!greeting)
  greeting = "Hello";

console.log(`${greeting}, ${name}`);

greet("John", "Hi");  // Hi, John
greet("Mary", "Hola");  // Hola, Mary
greet("Jane");  // Hello, Jane


What is the purpose of the tsconfig.json file?

A tsconfig.json file in a directory marks that directory as the root of a TypeScript project. It provides the compiler options to compile the project.

Here is a sample tsconfig.json file:

 "compilerOptions": {
   "module": "system",
   "noImplicitAny": true,
   "removeComments": true,
   "outFile": "../../built/local/tsc.js",
   "sourceMap": true
 "include": ["src/**/*"],
 "exclude": ["node_modules", "**/*.spec.ts"]


Explain the different variants of the for loop in TypeScript

TypeScript provides the following three ways to loop over collections

‘for’ loop
let values = [10, "foo", true];

for(let i=0; i<values.length; i++) {
  console.log(values[i]);  // 10, "foo", true

‘forEach’ function

let values = [10, "foo", true];
values.forEach(val => {
    console.log(val);  // 10, "foo", true

‘for..of’ statement

let values = [10, "foo", true];
for (let val of values) {
console.log(val); // 10, "foo", true


Explain the symbol type in TypeScript.

Symbols were introduced in ES6 and are supported by TypeScript. Similar to numbers and strings, symbols are primitive types. You can use Symbols to create unique properties for objects.

You can create symbol values by calling the Symbol() constructor, optionally providing a string key

let foo = Symbol();
let bar = Symbol("bar"); // optional string key

A key characteristic of symbols is that they are unique and immutable.

let foo = Symbol("foo");
let newFoo = Symbol("foo");

let areEqual = foo === newFoo;
console.log(areEqual);  // false, symbols are unique 


Explain how optional chaining works in TypeScript.

Optional chaining allows you to access properties and call methods on them in a chain-like fashion. You can do this using the ‘?.’ operator.

TypeScript immediately stops running some expression if it runs into a ‘null’ or ‘undefined’ value and returns ‘undefined’ for the entire expression chain.

Using optional chaining, the following expression

let x = foo === null || foo === undefined ? undefined : foo.bar.baz();

can be expressed as:

let x = foo?.bar.baz();


Provide the TypeScript syntax to create function overloads.

Function overloading allows us to define multiple functions with the same name, as long as their number of parameters or the types of parameters are different.

The following example defines two overloads for the function buildDate. The first overload takes a number as a parameter, whereas the second takes three numbers as parameters. These are called overload signatures.

The body of the function also called an implementation signature, follows the overload signatures. You can’t call this signature directly, as it’s not visible from the outside. It should be compatible with the overload signatures.

function buildDate(timestamp: number): Date;
function buildDate(m: number, d: number, y: number): Date;
function buildDate(mOrTimestamp: number, d?: number, y?: number): Date {
if (d !== undefined && y !== undefined) {
  return new Date(y, mOrTimestamp, d);
} else {
  return new Date(mOrTimestamp);

const d1 = buildDate(87654321);
const d2 = buildDate(2, 2, 2);


What is meant by type inference?

TypeScript can infer the type of a variable when you don’t provide an explicit type. This is known as type inference. This is usually done when the variables or parameters are initialized during the declaration.

For example, TypeScript knows that the variable foo is a string, even though we don’t mention string as a type.

let foo = "this is a string";
console.log(typeof foo);  // "string"


What is meant by contextual typing?

When the TypeScript compiler uses the location (or context) of a variable to infer its type, it’s called contextual typing.

In the following example, TypeScript uses the Window.onmousedown function type information to infer the type of the function expression on the right-hand side of the assignment. This allows it to infer the type of the e parameter, which does have a button property but not a property named foo.

window.onmousedown = function (e) {
console.log(e.button); //<- OK
console.log(e.foo); //<- Error!


What is the purpose of noImplicitAny?

Usually, when we don’t provide any type on a variable, TypeScript assumes ‘any’ type. For example, TypeScript compiles the following code, assuming the parameter ‘s’ is of any type. It works as long as the caller passes a string.

function parse(s) {
console.log(s.split(' '));
parse("Hello world");  // ["Hello", "world"]

However, the code breaks down as soon as we pass a number or other type than a string that doesn’t have a split() method on it. For example,

function parse(s) {
console.log(s.split(' '));  // [ERR]: s.split is not a function

noImplicitAny is a compiler option that you set in the tsconfig.json file. It forces the TypeScript compiler to raise an error whenever it infers a variable is of any type. This prevents us from accidentally causing similar errors

Parameter 's' implicitly has an 'any' type.(7006)

function parse(s) {
console.log(s.split(' '));  // [ERR]: s.split is not a function


What is an interface?

An interface defines a contract by specifying the type of data an object can have and its operations. In TypeScript, you can specify an object’s shape by creating an interface and using it as its type. It’s also called “duck typing”.

In TypeScript, you can create and use an interface as follows:

interface Employee {
name: string;
salary: number;

function process(employee: Employee) {
console.log(`${employee.name}'s salary = ${employee.salary}`);

let john: Employee = {
name: "John Doe",
salary: 150000

process(john);  // "John Doe's salary = 150000"

Interfaces are an effective way to specify contracts within your code as well as outside your code.


Explain the various ways to control member visibility in TypeScript.

TypeScript provides three keywords to control the visibility of class members, such as properties or methods.

  1. public: You can access a public member anywhere outside the class. All class members are public by default.
  2. protected: A protected member is visible only to the subclasses of the class containing that member. Outside code that doesn’t extend the container class can’t access a protected member.
  3. private: A private member is only visible inside the class. No outside code can access the private members of a class.

Does TypeScript support static classes? If not, why?

TypeScript doesn’t support static classes, unlike the popular object-oriented programming languages like C# and Java.

These languages need static classes because all code, i.e., data and functions, need to be inside a class and cannot exist independently. Static classes provide a way to allow these functions without associating them with any objects.

In TypeScript, you can create any data and functions as simple objects without creating a containing class. Hence TypeScript doesn’t need static classes. A singleton class is just a simple object in TypeScript.

What are abstract classes? When should you use one?

Abstract classes are similar to interfaces in that they specify a contract for the objects, and you cannot instantiate them directly. However, unlike interfaces, an abstract class may provide implementation details for one or more of its members.

An abstract class marks one or more of its members as abstract. Any classes that extend an abstract class have to provide an implementation for the abstract members of the superclass.

Here is an example of an abstract class Writer with two member functions. The write() method is marked as abstract, whereas the greet() method has an implementation. Both the FictionWriter and RomanceWriter classes that extend from Writer have to provide their specific implementation for the write method.

abstract class Writer {
abstract write(): void;

greet(): void {
  console.log("Hello, there. I am a writer.");

class FictionWriter extends Writer {
write(): void {
  console.log("Writing a fiction.");

class RomanceWriter extends Writer {
write(): void {
  console.log("Writing a romance novel.");

const john = new FictionWriter();
john.greet();  // "Hello, there. I am a writer."
john.write();  // "Writing a fiction."

const mary = new RomanceWriter();
mary.greet();  // "Hello, there. I am a writer."
mary.write();  // "Writing a romance novel."


What are anonymous functions? Provide their syntax in TypeScript.

An anonymous function is a function without a name. Anonymous functions are typically used as callback functions, i.e., they are passed around to other functions, only to be invoked by the other function at a later point in time. For example,

setTimeout(function () {
  console.log('Run after 2 seconds')
}, 2000);

You can invoke an anonymous function as soon as it’s created. It’s called ‘immediately invoked function execution (IIFE)’, For example:
(function() {
  console.log('Invoked immediately after creation');


What are union types in TypeScript?

A union type is a special construct in TypeScript that indicates that a value can be one of several types. A vertical bar (|) separates these types.

Consider the following example where the variable value belongs to a union type consisting of strings and numbers. The value is initialized to string “Foo”. Because it can only be a string or a number, we can change it to a number later, and the TypeScript compiler doesn’t complain.

let value: string | number = "Foo";
value = 10;  // Okay

However, if we try to set the value to a type not included in the union types, we get the following error.

value = true;  // Type 'boolean' is not assignable to type 'string | number'.(2322)

Union types allow you to create new types out of existing types. This removes a lot of boilerplate code as you don’t have to create new classes and type hierarchies.


What are intersection types?

Intersection types let you combine the members of two or more types by using the ‘&’ operator. This allows you to combine existing types to get a single type with all the features you need.

The following example creates a new type Supervisor that has the members of types Employee and Manager.

interface Employee {
work: () => string;

interface Manager {
manage: () => string;

type Supervisor = Employee & Manager;

// john can both work and manage
let john: Supervisor;


What are type aliases? How do you create one?

Type aliases give a new, meaningful name for a type. They don’t create new types but create new names that refer to that type.

For example, you can alias a union type to avoid typing all the types everywhere that value is being used.

type alphanumeric = string | number;
let value: alphanumeric = "";
value = 10;


Explain the tuple types in TypeScript

Tuples are a special type in TypeScript. They are similar to arrays with a fixed number of elements with a known type. However, the types need not be the same.

// Declare a tuple type and initialize it
let values: [string, number] = ["Foo", 15];

// Type 'boolean' is not assignable to type 'string'.(2322)
// Type 'string' is not assignable to type 'number'.(2322)
let wrongValues: [string, number] = [true, "hello"]; // Error

Since TypeScript 3.0, a tuple can specify one or more optional types using the ? as shown below.

let values: [string, number, boolean?] = ["Foo", 15];


Explain how tuple destructuring works in TypeScript.

You can destructure tuple elements by using the assignment operator (=). The destructuring variables get the types of the corresponding tuple elements.

let employeeRecord: [string, number] = ["John Doe", 50000];
let [emp_name, emp_salary] = employeeRecord;
console.log(`Name: ${emp_name}`);  // "Name: John Doe"
console.log(`Salary: ${emp_salary}`);  // "Salary: 50000"

After destructuring, you can’t assign a value of a different type to the destructured variable. For example,

emp_name = true;  // Type 'boolean' is not assignable to type 'string'.(2322)


What are type assertions in TypeScript?

Sometimes, you as a programmer might know more about the type of a variable than TypeScript can infer. Usually, this happens when you know the type of an object is more specific than its current type. In such cases, you can tell the TypeScript compiler not to infer the type of the variable by using type assertions.

TypeScript provides two forms to assert the types

as syntax:

let value: unknown = "Foo";
let len: number = (value as string).length;

<> syntax:

let value: unknown = "Foo";
let len: number = (<string>value).length;

Type assertions are similar to typecasting in other programming languages such as C# or Java. However, unlike those languages, there’s no runtime penalty of boxing and unboxing variables to fit the types. Type assertions simply let the TypeScript compiler know the type of the variable.


How to enforce strict null checks in TypeScript?

Null pointers are one of the most common sources of unexpected runtime errors in programming. TypeScript helps you avoid them to a large degree by enforcing strict null checks.

You can enforce strict null checks in two ways:

  1. providing the --strictNullChecks flag to the TypeScript (tsc) compiler
  2. setting the strictNullChecks property to true in the tsconfig.json configuration file.

When the flag is false, TypeScript ignores null and undefined values in the code. When it is true, null and undefined have their distinct types. The compiler throws a type error if you try to use them where a concrete value is expected.


How to make object properties immutable in TypeScript? (hint: read-only)

You can mark object properties as immutable by using the read only keyword before the property name. For example:

interface Coordinate {
readonly x: number;
readonly y: number;

When you mark a property as read-only, it can only be set when you initialize the object. Once the object is created, you cannot change it.

let c: Coordinate = { x: 5, y: 15 };
c.x = 20; // Cannot assign to 'x' because it is a read-only property.(2540)


What is a type declaration file?

A typical TypeScript project references other third-party TypeScript libraries such as JQuery to perform routine tasks. Having type information for the library code helps you in coding by providing detailed information about the types, method signatures, etc., and provides IntelliSense.

A type declaration file is a text file ending with a .d.ts extension providing a way to declare the existence of some types or values without actually providing implementations for those values. It contains the type declarations but doesn’t have any source code. It doesn’t produce a .js file after compilation.


What are triple-slash directives?

Triple-slash directives are single-line comments that contain a single XML tag. TypeScript uses this XML tag as a compiler directive.

You can only place a triple-slash directive at the top of the containing file. Only single or multi-line comments can come before a triple-slash directive. TypeScript treats them as regular comments if it occurs in the middle of a code block, after a statement.

The primary use of triple-slash directives is to include other files in the compilation process. For example, the following directive instructs the compiler to include a file specified by the path in the containing TypeScript file.

/// <reference path="..." />

Triple-slash directives also order the output when using --out or --outFile. The output files are produced to the output file location in the same order as the input files


Explain the purpose of the ‘in’ operator.

The in operator is used to find if a property is in the specified object. It returns true if the property belongs to the object. Otherwise, it returns false.

const car = { make: 'Hyundai', model: 'Elantra', year: 2017 };
console.log('model' in car);  // true
console.log('test' in car);  // false


What are the ‘implements’ clauses in TypeScript?

An implements clause is used to check that a class satisfies the contract specified by an interface. If a class implements an interface and doesn’t implement that interface, the TypeScript compiler issues an error.

interface Runnable {
run(): void;

class Job implements Runnable {
run() {
  console.log("running the scheduled job!");

// Class 'Task' incorrectly implements interface 'Runnable'.
// Property 'run' is missing in type 'Task' but required in type 'Runnable'.(2420)
class Task implements Runnable {
perform() {

A class can implement more than one interface. In this case, the class has to specify all the contracts of those interfaces.

What are string literal types?

In TypeScript, you can refer to specific strings and numbers as types.

let foo: "bar" = "bar";

// OK
foo = "bar";

// Error: Type '"baz"' is not assignable to type '"bar"'.(2322)
foo = "baz";

String literal types on their own are not that useful. However, you can combine them into unions. This allows you to specify all the string values that a variable can take, in turn acting like enums. This can be useful for function parameters.

function greet(name: string, greeting: "hi" | "hello" | "hola") {
// ...

greet("John", "hello");

// Error: Argument of type '"Howdy?"' is not assignable to parameter of type '"hi" | "hello" | "hola"'.(2345)
greet("Mary", "Howdy?");

String literal types can help us spell-check the string values.

What are template literal types?

Template literal types are similar to the string literal types. You can combine them with concrete, literal types to produce a new string literal type. Template literal types allow us to use the string literal types as building blocks to create new string literal types.

type Point = "GraphPoint";

// type Shape = "Grid GraphPoint"
type Shape = `Grid ${Point}`;

Template literal types can also expand into multiple strings via unions. It helps us create the set of every possible string literal that each union member can represent.

type Color = "green" | "yellow";
type Quantity = "five" | "six";

// type ItemTwo = "five item" | "six item" | "green item" | "yellow item"
type ItemOne = `${Quantity | Color} item`; 


Explain the concept of inheritance in TypeScript.

Inheritance allows a class to extend another class and reuse and modify the behavior defined in the other class. The class which inherits another class is called the derived class, and the class getting inherited is called the base class.

In TypeScript, a class can only extend one class. TypeScript uses the keyword ‘extends’ to specify the relationship between the base class and the derived classes.

class Rectangle {
length: number;
breadth: number

constructor(length: number, breadth: number) {
  this.length = length;
  this.breadth = breadth

area(): number {
  return this.length * this.breadth;

class Square extends Rectangle {
constructor(side: number) {
  super(side, side);

volume() {
  return "Square doesn't have a volume!"

const sq = new Square(10);

console.log(sq.area());  // 100
console.log(sq.volume());  // "Square doesn't have a volume!"

In the above example, because the class Square extends functionality from Rectangle, we can create an instance of square and call both the area() and volume() methods.

What are conditional types? How do you create them?

A conditional type allows you to dynamically select one of two possible types based on a condition. The condition is expressed as a type relationship test.

C extends B ? TypeX : TypeY

Here, if type C extends B, the value of the above type is TypeX. Otherwise, it is TypeY.

What is the Function type in TypeScript?

Function is a global type in TypeScript. It has properties like bind, call, and apply, along with the other properties present on all function values.

function perform(fn: Function) {

You can always call a value of the Function type, and it returns a value of ‘any’ type.

List some of the utility types provided by TypeScript and explain their usage.

TypeScript provides various utility types that make common type transformations easy. These utility types are available globally. Here are some of the essential utility types included in TypeScript.

Utility Type Description
Partial<Type> Constructs a type with all properties of Type set to optional.
Required<Type> Constructs a type consisting of all properties of Type set to required.
Readonly<Type> Constructs a type with all properties of Type set to readonly.
Record<Keys, Type> Constructs an object type with property keys are of type Keys, and values are Type.


What is TypeScript?

TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript. It is an object-oriented and tightly typed programming language. TypeScript code is transformed to JavaScript, which may be used in any environment that supports JavaScript, including browsers, Node.js, and your own applications.

Anders Hejlsberg of MICROSOFT created TypeScript. TypeScript was created in response to the limitations of JavaScript for constructing large-scale applications within Microsoft and among its external customers. There was a demand for bespoke tooling to make developing JavaScript components easier due to the complexity of working with complicated JavaScript code.

TypeScript is a variant of JavaScript with a few more features. TypeScript extends JavaScript with extra syntax to provide a more robust interface with your editor. TypeScript is a scripting language that is compatible with JavaScript and relies on type inference to deliver advanced functionality without the need for additional code.

List the Advantages of TypeScript

  1. Problems are highlighted throughout development and at compilation time.
  2. Typescript can be run in any browser or JavaScript engine.
  3. A namespace notion is created by declaring a module.
  4. IntelliSense is a TypeScript feature that provides active hints as you type.
  5. Strongly typed or static typing is supported. The advantage of TypeScript is that it is strictly typed or allows for static typing. Because of static typing, it may confirm type correctness at compilation time

List the disadvantages of TypeScript.

  1. It takes a long time to compile TypeScript code.
  2. Abstract classes are not supported in TypeScript.
  3. Converting TypeScript to JavaScript requires an additional compilation step.
  4. Its type scheme is extremely complicated


Name the access modifiers supported in TypeScript.

The access modifiers supported by TypeScript are:

  1. Protected- All child classes and members have access to them, but the instance does not.
  2. Private- Only members have access
  3. Public- Members, child classes, and instances of the class have access to the public modifier

How to convert a string to a number in TypeScript?

You can convert a string to a number by using parseInt(), parseFloat() and Number() Method.

What is JSX?

It's a syntax that's similar to XML and can be embedded. It must be converted into TypeScript that is valid. The JSX file with the.tsx extension is used.

JSX has an XML-like syntax that can be embedded. It is intended to be turned into legitimate JavaScript, though the semantics of that transformation will vary depending on the implementation. TypeScript allows you to embed JSX, type verify it, and compile it to JavaScript immediately.

Define static typing

Static typing refers to a compiler that has recognisable variables, arguments, and object members at compile time. This aids in the early detection of faults.

How can a class constant be implemented in TypeScript?

Class properties cannot be declared with the const keyword. The keyword 'const' cannot be used in a class member.

What is an Interface with reference to TypeScript?

The interface specifies the syntax that classes must use. All of the members of an interface are implemented by a class that implements it. It's possible to refer to it, but not to use it. A type-checking interface is used by the TypeScript compiler.

Define Lambda function.

For defining function expressions, TypeScript provides a shortcut syntax. A lambda function is an unnamed anonymous function.


let sum=(a: num, b: num): num=>{ return a+b;}

console.log(sum(5,10)); //returns 15

Here, ?=>? is a lambda operator.

Explain Different Data Types in Typescript?

Data Type Keyword Description
Number Number Both Integer and Floating-Point numbers are represented by it.
Boolean Boolean True and false values are represented.
String String It's used to denote a string of characters.
Void Void Usually applied to function return types.
Null Null It's used when an object isn't worth anything.
Undefined Undefined Indicates the value assigned to an uninitialized variable.
Any Any Any type of value can be assigned to a variable if it is declared with any data-type.


What are Decorators?

The Decorator is a type of declaration that is used to decorate a class declaration, method, accessor, property, or argument. Decorators take the form @expression, where expression must evaluate to a function that will be called with information about the decorated declaration when it is called at runtime.

class Person {
   public name: String;
   get fullName(){
function color(value: string) {

 // this is the decorator factory, it sets up

 // the returned decorator function

 return function (target) {

   // this is the decorator

   // do something with 'target' and 'value'...




What are Mixins?

Combining simpler partial classes is a popular approach of constructing classes from reusable components. For languages like Scala, you may be familiar with the concept of mixins or characteristics.

To extend a base class, the design relies on generics and class inheritance. The finest mixin support in TypeScript is provided through the class expression pattern.

We have a class where mixins are applied on top of it.

class Sprite {
 name = "";
 x = 0;
 y = 0;
 constructor(name: string) {
   this.name = name;


What is Namespace and how to declare it?

The namespace is used to group functionalities logically. To enable a single or a group of linked functionalities, a namespace can include interfaces, classes, functions, and variables.

The namespace keyword, followed by the namespace name, can be used to construct a namespace. Curly brackets can be used to define all interfaces, classes, and other objects.


namespace <name>


Explain Modules in TypeScript

A module is created with the intention of organizing TypeScript code. Modules are classified as follows:

Internal Modules: Internal Modules were previously used to logically group classes, interfaces, and functions into a single unit that could then be exported into a different module. In the most recent version of TypeScript, this logical grouping is referred to as namespace.

External Modules: External modules allow you to describe and load dependencies between many external js files in TypeScript


What are Mapped Types?

Taking an existing type and making each of its properties optional is a typical undertaking.

Because this happens frequently enough in JavaScript, TypeScript has a feature called mapped types that allows you to define new types based on existing ones. The new type turns each property in the old type in the same way into a mapped type. You can, for example, make all properties optional or of the readonly type.

It's important to note that this syntax refers to a type rather than a member. You can use an intersection type to add more members:

Now, take a look at the simple mapped type and its parts:

type Keys = "option1" | "option2";

type Flags = { [K in Keys]: boolean };

The syntax is similar to that of index signatures with a for.. in the middle. There are three sections in total:

The type variable K is assigned to each property one by one.

The literal union of strings The names of the properties to iterate over are stored in keys.

The property's type as a result



What are Object-Oriented Principles supported by TypeScript?

The object-oriented principles supported by TypeScript are Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism and Abstraction

Encapsulation is a major component of Object Oriented Programming, and it is a method of structuring code so that each block of code has its own set of access points for external code.

TypeScript makes creating an object model and inheritance chain a breeze. To construct classes, simply use the standard class keyword. The extended keyword causes the stated base class to be inherited by the child class.

Polymorphism occurs when many classes inherit from the same parent and override the same functionality. Each of those kid classes is now responsible for implementing a property or method, but they may do so in their own unique way.

Abstraction is a method of modelling objects in a system that separates the responsibilities of the class or type from the code that inherits it.


How to compile Typescript with Visual Studio Code?

  1. Visual Studio Code includes TypeScript language support but does not include the TypeScript compiler.
  2. You need to install the TypeScript compiler either globally or in your workspace to transpile TypeScript source code to JavaScript
  3. The easiest way to install TypeScript is through npm, the Node.js Package Manager. If you have npm installed, you can install TypeScript globally (-g) on your computer by:


npm install -g typescript

You can test your install by checking the version or help.

tsc --version


Explain the Awaited Type and Promise Improvements.

The Awaited type is a new utility type introduced in TypeScript 4.5. This type is intended to represent activities such as await in async functions and the.then() method on Promises - notably, the way they recursively unwrap Promises

// A = string

type A = Awaited<Promise<string>>;

// B = number

type B = Awaited<Promise<Promise<number>>>;

// C = boolean | number

type C = Awaited<boolean | Promise<number>>;

Existing APIs, such as JavaScript built-ins like Promise.all, Promise.race, and others, can benefit from the Awaited type. In fact, some of Promise.all's inference concerns provided a foundation for Awaited.

Promise.all combines certain traits with Awaited to produce far superior inference results.


What is Recursive Type Aliases?

The ability to "recursively" reference type aliases has always been limited. The reason for this is because each type alias must be capable of substituting itself for whatever it aliases. Because this isn't always possible, the compiler rejects some recursive aliases.

Interfaces can be recursive, but their expressiveness is limited, and type aliases cannot. That involves combining the two: creating a type alias and extracting the type's recursive portions into interfaces. It's effective.

type ValueOrArray<T> = T | ArrayOfValueOrArray<T>;

interface ArrayOfValueOrArray<T> extends Array<ValueOrArray<T>> {}


What Are difference between JavaScript and TypeScript?

TypeScript design and developed by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft.

  1. JavaScript - Brendan Eich at Netscape communications corporation, Mozilla Foundation, ECMA International.
  2. TypeScript has a feature known as Static typing but JavaScript does not have this feature.
  3. The file extension of TypeScript are (.ts/.tsx) while the file extension of JavaScript is (.js)
  4. TypeScript has Interface but JavaScript does not have Interface.
  5. TypeScript specially used in client-side but JavaScript use both client-side and server-side.
  6. TypeScript support optional parameters function but JavaScript does not support the optional parameters function.
  7. TypeScript is a heavy weighted an interpreted programming language but JavaScript is a light weighted.


What Is scope variable?

The scope is set of objects, variables and function and the JavaScript can have global scope variable and local scope variable.

We can say, we can declare a variable in the two type’s i.e.

  • Local Scope Variable
  • Global Scope Variable

Global Scope Variable - The global scope is a window object and it’s used out of function and within the functions.

Local Scope Variable - The local scope is a function object and it’s used within the functions.

Example for global and local variable (var/let) declarations –

let num = 15;

let getUser = function () {
    let name = 'Anil Singh';

    return name;

getUser(); // returns 'Anil Singh'

let sum = function() {
    let num = 15;

    return function subNum () {
        return num + 5;

sum(); // returns 20

let scopingRulesSum = function(isActive: boolean) {
    if (isActive) {
        let num = 15;
        num = num + 1;

    return num;

scopingRulesSum(true);  // returns 16
scopingRulesSum(false); // returns 'undefined'

var fun = function (i, isActive = true) {
    var i;
    var i;

    if (isActive) {
        var i;
    //The all declarations of 'i' actually refer to the same 'i'.

let i = 15;
let i = 20; // error: can't re-declare variable 'i' in the same scope.


What Is the Functions in TypeScript? How many types you defined in TypeScript?

A function is a set of statements that perform a specific task and used to create readable, maintainable and re-usable code.

A function declaration tells to compiler about a function name, return type, and parameters.

TypeScript functions are almost similar to JavaScript functions but there are different ways of writing functions in TypeScript.

The Different Types of Available Functions in TypeScript are-

  1. Normal function
  2. Anonymous Function
  3. Named Function
  4. Lambda Function/Arrow Function
  5. Class Function
  6. Optional Parameters
  7. Rest Parameters
  8. Default Parameters

Anonymous Functions–

An anonymous function is a function that was declared without any named identifier to refer to it.

As an Example - Normal function

function printHello() {
    console.log('Hello Anil!');

As an Example - Anonymous function

In the JavaScript –

var hello = function () {
    console.log('Hello Anil!, I am Anonymous.');

hello();//Return - Hello Anil!, I am Anonymous.


setTimeout(function () {
    console.log('Hello Anil!, I am Anonymous.');
}, 1000); //Return - Hello Anil!, I am Anonymous

In the TypeScript–

var anonymousFunc = function (num1: number, num2: number): number {
    return num1 + num2;

console.log(anonymousFunc(10, 20)); //Return is 30

console.log(anonymousFunc(10, "xyz"));
// error: Argument of type 'number' is not assignable to parameter of type 'string'.
//because return type is number for anonymous function).

Named Function -
The named function is very similar to the JavaScript function and only one difference - we must declare the type on the passed parameters.

As an Example – In the JavaScript

function addTwoNumer(num1, num2) {
    return num1 + num2;

As an Example – In the TypeScript

function addTwoNumer(num1: number, num2: number): number {
    return num1 + num2;

Lambda Function/Arrow Function -
The arrow function is additional feature in typescript and it is also known as a lambda function. A lambda function is a function without a name.

var addNum = (n1: number, n2: number) => n1 + n2;

In the above, the “=>” is a lambda operator and (n1 + n2) is the body of the function and (n1: number, n2: number) are inline parameters.

As an Example –

let addNum = (n1: number, n2: number): number => { return n1 + n2; }
let multiNum = (n1: number, n2: number): number => { return n1 * n2; }
let dividNum = (n1: number, n2: number): number => { return n1 / n2; }

addNum(10, 2);// Result - 12
multiNum(10, 2);// Result - 20
multiNum(10, 2);// Result - 5

Optional Parameters Function -
We can specify optional properties on interfaces and the property may be present or missing in the object.

In the below example, the address property is optional on the following “User” interface.

As an Example,

interface User {
    name: string;
    age: number;
    address?: string //Optional

let userInfo = function(user: User) {
   let info = "Hello, " + user.name + " Your Age is - " + user.age + " and Address is -" + user.address;

   return info;

let info = {
    name: "Anil",
    age: 30


Rest Parameters –
The Rest parameters do not restrict the number of values that we can pass to a function and the passed values must be the same type otherwise throw the error.

Example as,

//Rest Parameters
let addNumbers = function(...nums: number[]) {
    let p;
    let sum: number = 0;

    for (p = 0; p < nums.length; p++) {
        sum = sum + nums[p];

    return sum;

//The Result
addNumbers(1, 2);
addNumbers(1, 2, 3);
addNumbers(1, 12, 10, 18, 17);

Default Parameters Function –

What Is the Default Parameters Function in TypeScript?
Function parameters can also be assigned values by default. A parameter can't be declared as optional and default both at the same time.

In the below example, rate is a default param as number in discount function. If we pass the value in the discount’s rate param, it will use this otherwise use default value 0.40.

See the Example and its Output result,

let discount = function (price: number, rate: number = 0.40) {
    return price * rate;

discount(500); // Result - 200

discount(500, 0.45); // Result - 225


How to create fields, constructor and function in TypeScript Class? What is class in TypeScript?

A class is a template definition of the methods and variables in a particular kind of object. It is extensible program, code and template for creating objects.

A TypeScript is object oriented JavaScript and it also supports object oriented programming features like classes, interfaces, etc.

A class captains the Public, Private, Protected and Read-only modifiers and Public by default.
You can see the below example, the class User and each members are public by default.

A class definition can contains the following –

  1. Fields
  2. Constructors
  3. Functions

As an Example – Use of class field, constructor and function,

// A simple class based example.
class User { // Calss
    name: string; //field
    constructor(nameTxt: string) { //constructor
        this.name = nameTxt;

    getName() {//function
        return "Hello, " + this.name;

let user = new User("Anil");//Creating Instance objects


What Is Public, Private, Protected and Readonly Modifiers in TypeScript?

The TypeScript supports to multiple modifiers and it is by default public.

  1. Public,
  2. Private,
  3. Protected and
  4. Read-only

Public Modifier – Public by default! It is freely access anywhere.
In the below example, the class Employee and its members are by default public and we are freely access it.
As an Example -

class Employee {
    empName: string;
    constructor(name: string) {
        this.empName = name;
    salary(salary: number = 10000) {
        console.log('Hello, ' + this.empName + ' Your Salary -' + salary);
let empSal = new Employee("Anil");

Private Modifier -When using private modifier, we can’t be accessed from outside of its containing class.
As an Example,

class Employee {
    private empName: string;
    constructor(name: string) {
        this.empName = name;
    salary(salary: number = 10000) {
        console.log('Hello, ' + this.empName + ' Your Salary -' + salary);
let emp = new Employee("Anil").empName; 
//error: property 'empName' is private and only accesible in the class 'Employee'.

Protected Modifier - The protected modifier is very similar to private but only one difference that can be accessed by instances of deriving classes.
As an Example,

class Employee {
    protected  empName: string;
    constructor(name: string) {
        this.empName = name;
    salary(salary: number = 10000) {
        console.log('Hello, ' + this.empName + ' Your Salary -' + salary);
class Employer extends Employee {
    private department: string;
    constructor(empName: string, department: string) {
        this.department = department;
    salary(salary = 20000) {
let empSal = new Employer("Anil", "IT");
console.log(empSal.empName); //error- the property 'empName' is protected and only accesible within the class 'Employee' and its child class.

Readonly Modifier - Read-only properties must be initialized at their declaration or in the constructor.
As an example,

class Employee {
    readonly empName: string;
    constructor(name: string) {
        this.empName = name;
    salary(salary: number = 10000) {
        console.log('Hello, ' + this.empName + ' Your Salary -' + salary);
let emp = new Employee('Anil');
emp.empName = 'Anil Singh';//error - cannot assign to 'empName' because it is constant or read-only.



What Is Method Overriding in TypeScript?

In the Method Overriding, redefined the base class methods in the derive class or child class.

As an Example,

class NewPrinter extends Printer {
    doPrint(): any {
        console.log("Called Child class.");

    doInkJetPrint(): any {
        console.log("Called doInkJetPrint().");

let printer: new () => NewPrinter;


What Is the purpose of the public access modifier for classes in Typescript?

Your sample code means exactly the same in TypeScript. When you don't put a modifier public, private or protected on your member definition then TypeScript will choose the default one which is public.

What Is an Internal Module in TypeScript?

You can define modules within your typescript files and all variables defined within the module are scoped to the module and removed from the global scope.

You can access the variable outside the module using the export keyword and also you can extend internal modules, share them across files, and reference them using the triple slash.

Syntax - (///)

The List of TypeScript Modules Are,

  1. Internal Modules
    a. Implicit Internal Modules
    b. Named Internal Modules
  2. External Modules
  3. Exports Modules

Modules are executed within their own scope, not in the global scope.

  1. Internal modules are now namespaces.
  2. External modules are now simply modules, as to align with ECMAScript.


What Is Implicit Internal Modules?

You simply write source code without worrying about modules that is called implicit internal modules.

As an Example,

class AppGlobal {
    readonly baseAppUrl: string = 'http://localhost:57431/';
    readonly baseAPIUrl: string = 'https://api.github.com/';

let baseApiUrl = new AppGlobal().baseAPIUrl;///Returns http://localhost:57431/
let baseAppUrl = new AppGlobal().baseAppUrl;///Returns https://api.github.com/


What Is an Export in TypeScript? Why using Export in TypeScript?

Export - Exporting a declaration
Any variable, function, class or interface can be exported by using the export keyword. After using export keyword, you can access your variable, function, class or interface to outside the module.

As an Example –

module System.modules {
    //this function can be accessed from outside the module because using export.
    export function addNumbers(a: number, b: number): number {
        return a + b;

    // this class can be accessed from outside the module becaues using export.
    export class ExportedClass {
        public subNumbers(a: number, b: number): number {
            return a - b;

namespace System.namespaces {
    //this function can be accessed from outside the module because using export.
    export function addNumbers(a: number, b: number): number {
        return a + b;

    // this class can be accessed from outside the module because using export.    export class ExportedClass {
        public subNumbers(a: number, b: number): number {
            return a - b;


What Is default export in TypeScript? Why using default export in TypeScript?

Default exports –
Each module can optionally export a default export and the default exports work with the keyword default and we can use only one default export per module.

As an Example,

export class User {
    //Todo your logic here..

And then -
import { User } from "./User";


export default "http://localhost:57431/Account/Login";

import BaseUrl from "../BaseUrl";
console.log(BaseUrl); //"http://localhost:57431/Account/Login"


What Is External Modules in TypeScript?

External modules are useful in sense they hide the internal statements of the module definitions and show only the methods and parameters associated to the declared variable.

It is using when dealing with large JavaScript based applications. When we using nodejs or external modules, you can export an entire module and then import it into another module.

As an Example -

// userList.ts file
// imports the users.ts file as the users module
import impUser = module('users');

export function userList() {
    var user = new impUser.users();

// users.ts file
// exports the entire module
export class users {
    getUsers() {
         return ["Anil", "Alok", "Dilip"];


What Is difference between module and namespace in typescript?

Module is for external packages and the namespace is for internal packages. Actually, the module keyword has been replaced with the namespace keyword.

Namespaces are simply named JavaScript objects in the global namespace.
Modules can contain both code and declarations. The main difference is that modules declare their dependencies.

The named modules called “namespace” in latest version of TypeScript. So we can use namespace instead of internal modules in the TypeScript.

As per me, this one is the best coding practice but don’t mind the internal modules are also supporting, if you want can use it.